The eastern Indian state of Odisha is best known for its largest coastal lagoon and the huge caves of Udaygiri caves and Khandagiri caves, located at the capitol of the state, Bhubaneswar. The names are derived from the two hills, Udaygiri, meaning hills of sunrise and Khandagiri, meaning broken hills. These hills have a number of caves which are a dwelling retreat of the Jain ascetics. They belong to the Jain rock cut temples and are carved by the Jain monks from the reign of King Kharavela of the Mahameghavahana dynasty. These caves stand as the evidence of ancient architecture which carry the messages of love, compassion and religious tolerance.
Udaygiri caves have 18 caves in it. The largest and the majestic one is the Queen or Rani gumpha. The second cave is Bajaghara Gumpha. Cave 3 is Chota Hathi Gumpha with six giant elephants. The fourth cave is Alkapuri Gumpha. Cave 5 is Jaya Vijaya Gumpha. The sixth is Panasa Gumpha which has two columns built. The seventh cave is Thakurani Gumpha. The eighth cave is Patalapuri Gumpha. The ninth cave is is Mancapuri Gumpha. Cave 10 is Ganesa Gumph. The eleventh cave is Jambesvara Gumpha. The twelfth cave is Vyaghra Gumpha which is an unusual small temple cave. The thirteenth cave is Sarpa Gumpha. The fourteenth is Hathi Gumpha also known as elephants cave. Cave 15 is Dhanaghara Gumpha carved with the sculpture of gate keeper. Cave 16 is Haridasa Gumpha. Cave 17 is Jagammath Gumpha and Cave 18 is Rosai Gumpha.
Khandagiri caves have 15 caves in it. The first cave is Tatowa Gumpha and the second cave is also named Tatowa Gumpha No.2. The third cave is Ananta Gumpha. The fourth cave is Tentuli Gumpha. The fifth cave is Khandagiri Gumpha. Cave 6 is Dhyana Gumpha. The seventh cave is Navamuni Gumpha. Cave 8 is Barabhuji Gumpha. The ninth cave is Trusula Gumpha. The tenth cave is Ambika Gumpha. Cave 11 is Lalatendukesari Gumpha. The names of Cave 12, Cave 13 are unknown. The fourteenth cave is Ekadasi Gumpha and the fifteenth cave is also unknown.
These caves show the sculptures and inscriptions of Jainism. The sculptures depict auspicious objects worshipped by Jains, court scenes, royal processions, hunting expeditions and scenes of daily life.